Toyota Land Cruiser 100 / Amazon, Lexus LX 470
Since 1997 of release
Repair and car operation
Tojota Lend Kruzer, Amazon, Leksus LX470
- Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
Поддомкрачивание and towage
Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
Automobile химикалии, oils and greasings
Diagnostics of malfunctions of knots and car systems
+ Controls and receptions of safe operation of the car
+ Options and car routine maintenance
+ The engine
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, salon and air conditioning heating
+ The power supply system and release of the fulfilled gases
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
+ Gear change box
+ Transmissionnaja line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
Technology of service
There are some techniques of performance of procedures of maintenance service and car repairs on which the reader will find references in the text of the present Management. Following to offered instructions will make work of the mechanic-fan of more effective, will allow to organise in the best way and qualitatively to execute various technical procedures and is pledge of half-number performance of all necessary works.
As fixture are called nuts, bolts, hairpins and the screws serving for connection among themselves of two or more details. At work with fixture elements it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any carving fixture this or that kind контрящих and stopping adaptations is applied. It can be lock washers, counternuts, lock tags or special fixing hermetic for carvings. All used fixture should be absolutely pure and direct, with not broken carving and not rounded corners шестигранных heads on a turn-key basis. It is necessary to take for a rule without fail to make replacement of the damaged elements of fixture. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to a reuse, as at отдавании lose the контрящие properties and at assemblage always should be replaced.
"The become attached" fixture for the purpose of simplification of unscrewing and in order to avoid damages before отдаванием should be processed special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use for this purpose turpentine which it is convenient to put from the special small canister with a long nouse. After fixture wetting by getting structure, it is necessary to give to means within several minutes properly to impregnate the oxidised contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down a chisel, is cut ножовкой or removed by means of special гайколома.
At cutting of a head of a bolt or обламывании hairpins on assemblage the rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of a special ex-tractor. The majority of repair trucks can undertake performance of this, no less than others (for example, restoration of the broken carving in carving apertures), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers at assemblage should be established always into place in the original positions. The damaged washers without fail replace with the new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example aluminium), thin sheet metal or plastic of a fixed detail always it is necessary to establish flat washers.
The sizes of fixture
For many reasons manufacturers of cars all apply metric fixture more widely and more widely. However, it is important to know a difference between this (more universal) fixture and fixture of standard SAE used sometimes (or American). Despite external similarity, elements of these two types of fixture are not interchangeable.
All bolts as standard SAE, and metric, are classified on diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, the bolt of standard SAE 1/2-13*1 has an inch floor in diameter, 13 coils of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch. Metric bolt М12-1.75*25 has diameter of 12 mm, a carving step (distance between the next coils) 1.75 mm and length of 25 mm. Both bolts are outwardly almost identical, however are not interchangeable.
In addition to the listed signs, both metric bolts, and bolts of standard SAE can be identified visually by head survey. To begin with, the distance between лысками heads of a metric bolt is measured in millimetres, whereas at American – in inches (the same is fair and for nuts). As consequence, the wrench of standard SAE is not necessary for use with metric fixture, and on the contrary. Besides, on heads большей parts of bolts of standard SAE usually are available the radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of a tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more quantity of notches, the above admissible effort (on cars bolts of a class of durability from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code. Code figures are usually cast, as well as on the American fixture, on a bolt head (on cars bolts of classes of durability 8.8, 9.8, and 10.9 are usually applied).
Also, on labels of a class of durability, it is possible to distinguish nuts of class SAE from the metric. Dot labels are applied to identification of a class of durability of standard nuts, проштамповываемые on one of face surfaces of a nut while marks of metric nuts are made by means of, besides, digital code. Than quantity of points, or the more value of a digital code, the above admissible effort of a tightening of a nut more.
Marks of a class of durability standard шестигранных nuts
Marks of a class of durability metric шестигранных nuts
End faces of metric hairpins also are marked according to a class of their durability. The digital code whereas on smaller have marks in the form of geometrical figures is put on large hairpins.
It is necessary to notice that the considerable part of fixture, in particular a class of durability from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case unique way of difference of the American fixture from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or сравнивание coils with coils of unequivocally identified element.
It is necessary to remember that under classification SAE only small fixture gets. Larger elements with not metric carving is fixture of the American standard (USS).
As the fixture of the same geometrical size (both standard, and metric) can have various classes of durability, at replacement of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to give particular attention to conformity of a class of durability established new elements removed on a durability class.
The sizes of metric carvings
The sizes of trumpet carvings
The sizes of carvings of standard SAE/USS
Located on perimetre of any component the fixture (such as bolts of a head of cylinders, the pallet картера and various covers) in order to avoid detail deformation should be given and be tightened in strictly certain order. The order of a tightening and отдавания such fixture is resulted in the text of corresponding Heads of the Management, and also on сопр. Illustrations. If the special order is not stipulated, in order to avoid component deformation, it is necessary to adhere resulted below instructions.
At the first stage all bolts/nuts should be tightened by hand. Further, each of fixture elements by turns reaches on one complete revolution, and transition from one bolt/nut to another should be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first element, it is necessary to repeat procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half-turn. Continue procedure performance, holding out each element already on a turn quarter for one approach until all of them will not appear tightened with demanded effort. At отдавании fixture it is necessary to operate in a similar manner, but upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components should be carried out in such manner that at installation each detail could be established on the former place and correct image. Try to remember characteristic external features of knot in gathering, in case of need, make landing marks of the details which installation can be into place executed in the ambiguous image (for example, the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft, etc.). Placing of the removed details on a pure working surface in that order in what their removal was made will be good idea. Useful there will be also a drawing up of the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photographing of an assorted component.
At отдавании fixture try to make marks of its initial position on assemblage. Often, installation of fixture and washers on a former place right after removal of a corresponding detail allows to avoid mess at assemblage. In the absence of such possibility, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose broken into sections and in appropriate way the marked box, or it is simple on the separate marked boxes. Such approach appears especially useful at work with the components consisting of set of fine details, such as the carburettor, the generator, клапанный the mechanism, the panel of devices or elements of a decorative upholstery of salon.
At a detachment of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to pay attention to marks of wires or plaits by means of an adhesive tape with the digital on it digital or alphabetic code.
On all cars sealing linings are applied to hermetic sealing of a place of a joint of interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serve for prevention of leaks of oils and other working liquids and maintenance in assemblage of the raised pressure/depression.
Often such linings before installation become covered liquid or pastelike sealing компаундом (hermetic). Sometimes, eventually, or under the influence of the raised temperatures or pressure occurs so strong «прикипание» interfaced surfaces to each other that the partition of details becomes an exigeant problem. With many cases to successful separation of the "become attached" components helps обстукивание them outside on perimetre of a joint a hammer with soft the brisk. It is possible to take advantage for this purpose as well of a usual hammer, putting blows through the wooden or plastic prorate. It is not necessary to make обстукивание cast cases and components sensitive to concussion. At occurrence of such difficulties always first of all check, whether weigh fixture it is removed.
Avoid подрычаживания details by means of a screw-driver or the mount, entered into joint area as thus interfaced surfaces can be easily damaged that further will lead to development of leaks. If to avoid подрычаживания "the become attached" elements of assemblage it is not possible, use for this purpose the handle from old сметки, but remember that all formed chips should be carefully removed both from interfaced surfaces, and from internal cavities of components of the dismembered knot.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces should be smoothed carefully out with application of a scraper for removal of traces of a material of an old lining. The hardened fragments can be preliminary softened by means of the converter of a rust or a special chemical compound. As a scraper the piece of a copper tube with the flattened out and pointed end in this case can be used. The rests of some linings easily can be removed by means of a copper brush, however, without dependence from the applied method, interfaced surfaces as a result of processing should become absolutely pure and dry. If for any reason the interfaced surface has appeared is damaged, before knot assemblage fill defects прокладочным with hermetic. In most cases it is necessary to use not stiffening (or not up to the end stiffening) hermetic.
Councils about removal of hoses
Measures of precautions which should be observed at removal of hoses, are very close to the measures shown at dismantle of linings. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes on which the ends of hoses as it can be at the bottom of development of leaks stretch. In a special measure last requirement concerns procedure of removal of hoses of a radiator. Owing to occurring in a path of system of cooling of various chemical reactions frequently occurs «прикипание» rubbers of hoses to surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For hose removal first of all ослабьте a collar of its its fastening. Then nippers seize a hose near to a collar and start to rotate it on the union / a connecting branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue to operate in the stated manner to a hose outright release, then remove a hose from the union. The small amount of the silicone or other greasing entered into a backlash between the union and a hose, will allow to save forces. Before hose installation grease its internal surface adjoining to an end face, and also an external surface of the union with a solution of soap water or a small amount of silicone greasing.
As extreme means, or in case of unequivocal necessity of replacement of a hose on the new end of a hose put on the union can be knifed and then is separated from an union surface. Thus try not to damage an edge union metal / a connecting branch pipe.
In case of damage шлангового a collar, replace it with the new. Collars of braided type usually weaken in due course, therefore, without dependence from a condition, it is better to replace them more practical screw or worm.
Selection of the qualitative tool is one of basic requirements for everyone who plans independent performance of procedures of maintenance service or car repairs. At first sight, the expenses connected with acquisition of the demanded complete set of tools, can seem incommensurably big, however at сравнивании them with the expenses interfaced to performance of procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs on a car repair shop, will appear quite reasonable.
For the purpose of approach ordering three lists of tools conditionally entitled as are more low resulted in a choice necessary at repair and service of the car of the tool:« Tooling for routine maintenance and the minimum repair "," the Tooling for the general and major repairs "and" the Special tool ». The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out of mechanical works, should begin with performance of the procedures limited to application of tools from the first list, raising thus qualification and gradually expanding a range of the activity. In process of acquisition of skills, it is possible to pass to performance more challenges, gradually filling up assortment of tools available on hands. After a while the gained experience will allow to pass to performance of more difficult works demanding application of the tool from the second list (for the general and car major repairs). When qualification of the executor will reach enough high level and will allow to save considerable means for independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tooling on routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list resulted more low includes a minimum of units of the tools necessary for performance of procedures of routine maintenance and insignificant car repairs. Composers of the present Management recommend to begin with acquisition of the complete set of the combined wrenches (with usual рожковой a head on one end and with накидной on other). Despite the raised cost of the given complete set in comparison with cost of a set usual рожковых keys, expenses will be justified, since such keys possess advantages of both types.
· the Complete set of the combined keys from 8 to 19 mm
Tooling for the general and car major repairs
The given tool is absolutely necessary at carrying out of any operations on repair of the engine of the car and it is offered in addition to the first list. The complete set of replaceable face heads is included in the present list. At considerable cost, the set of replaceable heads brings invaluable advantage, thanks to the universality and convenience in circulation, in particular in a combination to drives of various type entering into the complete set. It is recommended to prefer drives inch section 1/2 (instead of 3/8 inches) since they though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type динамометрических keys (in an ideal, the good mechanic should have at the order both types of drives). Cheaper alternative to the complete set of replaceable face heads is the set of tubular keys.
· the Complete set of replaceable face heads (including type heads «TORХ») (or tubular keys), the sizes corresponding to the sizes of wrenches from the previous list
· Clamping pincers
· the Chisel on 25 mm
The special tool
The tools being adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding at use performance of instructions of manufacturers get to the given category. If the field of activity of the mechanic-fan does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool becomes a bad investment of means – it will be more reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends, or as required to hire in car-care centre workshops.
To the beginner-mechanic can be offered some practical advice in respect of acquisition of the tool necessary for performance of procedures of service and car repairs. By preparation for carrying out of procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to get the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of more large-scale works, it is easier and more reliable to buy the complete set of the modern tool in shop of a retail network. Complete set acquisition usually manages slightly more cheaply individual purchases and is often accompanied by the appendix in the complete set of a tool box. Further, for assortment expansion, separate tools, additional complete sets and a tool box большего can be bought in addition the size. Gradual expansion of the complete set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in a choice of really necessary tools.
Specialised tool shops are a unique source of acquisition of some special tools. Without dependence from a source choice, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at a choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as term of their service for certain will appear short. The expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool, as a result will appear incomparably more considerable, than expenses for unitary acquisition of the qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is a valuable investment of means, therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After using the tool, before folding in a storage place, always carefully wipe its surface pure dry rags, deleting traces of a dirt, greasing and the rests of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered. After end of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car on presence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers, etc., the tool comb fixed in a convenient place on a wall of garage is ideally suited. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The precision measuring tool should be stored in inaccessible to influence of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of a working surface of the tool. The shock part бойка a hammer in the course of use is subject расклепыванию, screw-drivers lose in due course sharpening of the stings. Do not stint to give a few time and attention to that by means of an emery paper or a file to remove расклепы and to put in order cutting edges. It is irreversible the worn out or damaged tool in due time replace.
At careful leaving the tool is capable to serve belief and the truth during very long term.
The workplace equipment
Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to recollect the workplace equipment. If carrying out of more serious work, than simple maintenance service of a vehicle is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable worker of a platform.
It is necessary to recognise that many motorists are compelled to make dismantle of the engine and other similar works far not in the conditions of garage or a workshop. However in any case the important requirement is roof or awning presence.
Whenever possible, any procedures on dismantling of parts of systems of the car should be made on a pure workbench with an equal working surface, or a strong table of convenient height. The workbench should be necessarily equipped by a vice with disclosing of sponges to 100 mm and with soft overlays on sponges.
As already it was mentioned above, on a working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant and cleaning liquids, шпаклевок, paint and varnish materials, etc. should be equipped
It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electrodrill, hence, the working platform should be equipped by the power supply for its connection. Presence of a drill with a cartridge to 9.5 mm and a set of qualitative drills appreciably will facilitate carrying out of many procedures.
At last, on a workplace always there should be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure, not ворсящейся the rags, intended for gathering of the spilt liquids and rubbing of a working platform, the tool and car details.
It is necessary to hand over the fulfilled working liquids in the centres on recycling in tight container.
Never make any works on the barefaced painted surface кузовных car panels, use protective overlays on wings, or, at the worst, cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.